Categories
Programming

CS193p Spring 2021 Lecture 4 & Assignment 2

After lecture 4

A lot of this stuff still isn’t making a ton of sense to me. I really struggled with how to init the theme for assignment 2. The key was optionals. How to do it came to me in the shower. I am writing this post after doing the changes from Lecture 4, Assignment 2, and Lecture 5 so I don’t have a whole lot specifically around lecture 4.

Code

The viewModel is now hooked up to both the View and the Model. This MVVM stuff is clicking for me, thankfully.

MemoryGame.swift – includes scoring:

//
//  MemoryGame.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/28/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import Foundation

// model
struct MemoryGame<CardContent> where CardContent: Equatable {
    private(set) var cards: Array<Card>
    private var indexOfTheOneAndOnlyFaceUpCard: Int?
    private(set) var score = 0
    
    mutating func choose(_ card: Card) {
        if let chosenIndex = cards.firstIndex(where: { $0.id == card.id }),
           !cards[chosenIndex].isFaceUp,
           !cards[chosenIndex].isMatched
        {
            if let potentialMatchIndex = indexOfTheOneAndOnlyFaceUpCard {
                cards[chosenIndex].hasBeenSeenThisManyTimes += 1
                cards[potentialMatchIndex].hasBeenSeenThisManyTimes += 1
                if cards[chosenIndex].content == cards[potentialMatchIndex].content {
                    // match
                    cards[chosenIndex].isMatched = true
                    cards[potentialMatchIndex].isMatched = true
                    score += 2
                } else if cards[chosenIndex].hasBeenSeenThisManyTimes > 1 ||
							cards[potentialMatchIndex].hasBeenSeenThisManyTimes > 1 {
					// mismatch
					 score -= 1
				}
                indexOfTheOneAndOnlyFaceUpCard = nil
            } else {
                for index in cards.indices {
                    cards[index].isFaceUp = false
                }
                indexOfTheOneAndOnlyFaceUpCard = chosenIndex
            }
            
            cards[chosenIndex].isFaceUp.toggle()
        }
        print("\(cards)")
    }
    
    init(numberOfPairsOfCards: Int, createCardContent: (Int) -> CardContent) {
        cards = Array<Card>()
        // add number of pairs of cards x 2 cards to card array
        for pairIndex in 0..<numberOfPairsOfCards {
            let content: CardContent = createCardContent(pairIndex)
            cards.append(Card(content: content, id: pairIndex*2))
            cards.append(Card(content: content, id: pairIndex*2+1))

        }
        cards.shuffle()
    }
    
    struct Card: Identifiable {
        var isFaceUp: Bool = false
        var isMatched: Bool = false
        var content: CardContent
        var id: Int
        var hasBeenSeenThisManyTimes: Int = 0
    }
}

EmojiMemoryGame.swift – we’ve moved the theme stuff into its own struct/file

//
//  EmojiMemoryGame.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/28/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import SwiftUI

// viewModel
class EmojiMemoryGame: ObservableObject {
    @Published private var gameModel: MemoryGame<String>
    private(set) var theme: Theme
    
    static func createMemoryGame(theme: Theme) -> MemoryGame<String> {
        let emojis: Array<String> = theme.emojis.shuffled()
		var cardsToShow = theme.numberOfPairsOfCards ?? Int.random(in: 3...theme.emojis.count)
		if cardsToShow > theme.emojis.count {
			cardsToShow = theme.emojis.count
		}
        return MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: cardsToShow) { pairIndex in
            emojis[pairIndex]
        }
    }
    
	init(startingTheme: Theme? = nil)
    {
		let selectedTheme = startingTheme ?? themes.randomElement()!
		self.theme = selectedTheme
		gameModel = EmojiMemoryGame.createMemoryGame(theme: selectedTheme)
    }

    var cards: Array<MemoryGame<String>.Card> {
        return gameModel.cards
    }
	
	var score: Int {
		return gameModel.score
	}
    
    // MARK: - INTENTS
    func choose(_ card: MemoryGame<String>.Card) {
        gameModel.choose(card)
    }
    
    func startNewGame() {
        let newTheme = themes.randomElement()!
		self.theme = newTheme
		gameModel = EmojiMemoryGame.createMemoryGame(theme: newTheme)
    }
}

MemorizeApp.swift – added the viewModel argument to the init here

//
//  MemorizeApp.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/25/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import SwiftUI

@main
struct MemorizeApp: App {
    let game = EmojiMemoryGame()
    
    var body: some Scene {
        WindowGroup {
            ContentView(viewModel: game)
        }
    }
}

Theme.swift

//
//  Theme.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 6/7/21.
//

import Foundation
import SwiftUI

//    struct Theme: Identifiable {
struct Theme {
    var name: String
    var emojis: [String]
    var numberOfPairsOfCards: Int?
    var baseColor: Color
}

let themes: [Theme] = [
	Theme(name: "vehicles",
		  emojis: ["🚗","🚌","🚑","🚜","🛴","🚲","🚔","🛺","🚘","🚃","🚄","🚠","🚅","✈️","🚀","🛸","🚁","🛶","🚤","🚢","🛳","🚓","🚛","🛵"],
		  baseColor: Color.red),
	Theme(name: "fruits",
		  emojis: ["🍎","🍐","🍊","🍋","🍌","🍉","🍇","🍓","🍒","🍑","🍍","🥥"],
		  baseColor: Color.yellow),
	Theme(name: "animals",
		  emojis: ["🐒","🦍","🐩","🦊","🐈","🦁","🦄","🐂","🐖","🐑","🐪","🦒"],
		  numberOfPairsOfCards: 20,
		  baseColor: Color.blue)

]

ContentView.swift

//
//  ContentView.swift
//  Memorize - Stanford CS193p, Spring 2021
//  After assignment 1
//
//  Created by Austin from austinsnerdythings.com on 5/27/21.
//

import SwiftUI

// view
struct ContentView: View {
    @ObservedObject var viewModel: EmojiMemoryGame
    
    var body: some View {
        VStack {
			HStack {
				Text("Memorize!").font(.largeTitle)
				Spacer()
				HStack {
					VStack {
						Text(viewModel.theme.name).font(.title)
						Text("Score: \(viewModel.score)")
					}
					Button("New Game") {
						viewModel.startNewGame()
					}
				}
				
			}
            ScrollView {
                LazyVGrid(columns: [GridItem(.adaptive(minimum: 80))]){
                    ForEach(viewModel.cards[0..<viewModel.cards.count]) { card in
                        CardView(card: card)
                            .aspectRatio(2/3, contentMode: .fit)
                            .onTapGesture {
                                viewModel.choose(card)
                            }
                    }
                }
            }
            .foregroundColor(viewModel.theme.baseColor)
            .font(.largeTitle)
            .padding(.horizontal)
        }
    }
}

struct CardView: View {
    let card: MemoryGame<String>.Card
    var body: some View {
        ZStack {
            let shape = RoundedRectangle(cornerRadius: 20)
            if card.isFaceUp {
                shape.fill().foregroundColor(.white)
                shape.strokeBorder(lineWidth: 3)
                Text(card.content).font(.largeTitle)
            } else if card.isMatched {
                shape.opacity(0)
            } else {
                shape.fill()
            }
        }
    
    }
}

struct ContentView_Previews: PreviewProvider {
    static var previews: some View {
        let game = EmojiMemoryGame()
        ContentView(viewModel: game)
            .preferredColorScheme(.light)
        ContentView(viewModel: game)
            .preferredColorScheme(.dark)
    }
}

References

I gained some inspiration (and cleared up a lot of confusion) from two GitHub repos:

Conclusion

Still a slog. Still learning. CS193p Spring 2021 Lecture 4 is probably where I would start wondering if I should drop the class if I was a Stanford student. The stuff from lecture 5 (post coming up) where Professor took 20 lines and shrunk it to 2 is still a bit much for me. He says it improves readability. It does, but stuffing everything into a single line does hinder debugging.

Categories
Programming

Learning Swift – CS193p Spring 2021 Lecture 3

After lecture 3

So lecture 3 really pointed out to me where/why I had trouble learning Swift the first time around. The shortened closures and the whole “if this is the last argument for the function call, drop it” thing don’t make it easy for people new to the language. Words/phrases that came to mind when I realized what happened include “cute”, “nuanced”, and “too concise”. I wrote a whole post about it here. This lecture series will get me back on the right track to learn Swift. Link to after lecture 2/assignment post here.

Code

The code compiles. We did not hook the new model or viewmodel up to the view yet so no updates on the UI with this post. This is the first post where the code will be split across multiple files. (This means I should move to github or something similar.)

MemoryGame.swift

//
//  MemoryGame.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/28/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import Foundation

struct MemoryGame<CardContent> {
    private(set) var cards: Array<Card>
    
    func choose(_ card: Card) {
        // this is where the game logic will go
    }
    
    init(numberOfPairsOfCards: Int, createCardContent: (Int) -> CardContent) {
        cards = Array<Card>()
        // add number of pairs of cards x 2 cards to card array
        for pairIndex in 0..<numberOfPairsOfCards {
            let content: CardContent = createCardContent(pairIndex)
            cards.append(Card(content: content))
            cards.append(Card(content: content))

        }
    }
    
    struct Card {
        var isFaceUp: Bool = false
        var isMatched: Bool = false
        var content: CardContent
    }
}

EmojiMemoryGame.swift

//
//  EmojiMemoryGame.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/28/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import SwiftUI


class EmojiMemoryGame {
    static let emojis = ["🚗","🚌","🚑","🚜","🛴","🚲","🚔","🛺","🚘","🚃","🚄","🚠","🚅","✈️","🚀","🛸","🚁","🛶","🚤","🚢","🛳","🚓","🚛","🛵"]
    
    static func createMemoryGame() -> MemoryGame<String> {
        return MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 4) { pairIndex in
            EmojiMemoryGame.emojis[pairIndex]
        }
    }
    
private var model: MemoryGame<String> =
    MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 4) { _ in "A" }
    
    var cards: Array<MemoryGame<String>.Card> {
        return model.cards
    }
}

MemorizeApp.swift

//
//  MemorizeApp.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin on 5/25/21.
//  austinsnerdythings.com

import SwiftUI

@main
struct MemorizeApp: App {
    var body: some Scene {
        WindowGroup {
            ContentView()
        }
    }
}

ContentView.swift is basically the same as last lecture. It wasn’t touched much (if at all) so I won’t include it. CS193p Spring 2021 lecture 3 was mostly about some Swift ideas and MVVM, not the view for the app.

Conclusion

I am super glad I started watching these lectures so they could get me going in the right direction for Swift. Sure I’m a bit frustrated now because I realize where I went wrong, but I’m excited to get back to lecture 4 and the assignment after this long weekend.

Categories
Programming

Learning Swift – Confusion on Conciseness

Is Swift too concise for beginners?

This is not the first time I’ve tried to learn Swift. The first go took place maybe October/November 2020. I followed the official Apple Landmarks tutorial (called Creating and Combining Views) and things just did not click. I looked elsewhere for tutorials as well. My wife and I also had our first 3 month old around so my brain wasn’t functioning 100%. Regardless, I could follow the Landmarks tutorial, but not really step out on my own. The words I used to describe Swift to myself were “too cute” and “nuanced” and other things like that. After watching the Stanford CS193p Spring 2021 Lecture 3 video, there was a 2 minute section that really cleared things up for me. My background is mostly C# with some Python so that’s where I’m coming from.

Shortening things up

At 1:33:43 in the lecture, Professor Hegarty is finished taking two completely reasonable functions and chopping out more than half the characters. The resulting combination functions exactly the same as the two larger functions.

Before:

func makeCardContent(index: Int) -> String {
    return "A"
}
private var model: MemoryGame<String> =
    MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 4, createCardContent: makeCardContent)

Middle:

private var model: MemoryGame<String> =
    MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 4, createCardContent: {(index: Int) -> String in
        return "A"
    })

After:

private var model: MemoryGame<String> =
    MemoryGame<String>(numberOfPairsOfCards: 4) { _ in "A" }

The theme of the code reduction is ‘taking out things that Swift already knows’ as well as the ‘if this is the last argument of a function, plop the function in its place’. Let’s examine that for a minute.

The last argument of a function thing is really an if-then that you need perform mentally while writing code. When learning a language, it isn’t particularly easy to figure out what’s going on when all the code snippets are already fully reduced. Maybe I missed a key page in the documentation, but this wasn’t made clear to me in any of the learning I attempted to do. It could also just be that I don’t understand how functional programming is supposed to work.

That same code in C# (at least for the versions I use) would be a lot more clear to read. Everything would be specified, unless you precede a variable with var, which indicates that you want the compiler to infer the type. Being able to decide is nice.

When does concise become confusing?

All that said, I still think “cute” and “nuanced” are appropriate for describing Swift (at least SwiftUI). It tries to be cute by cutting out thing where other languages just leave them in. The underbar (_) when you don’t need to specify an argument is another example of this. Why not just make every argument label optional unless specifically called out as necessary?

The other thing is the mix between Swift being a strongly-typed language as well as type inferencing. If it is strongly-typed, we should need to specify the type basically everywhere. Leaving out the types and letting the compiler inference them seems to work really well (I know the compilers are all much smarter than me) but it doesn’t help readability.

Conclusion

Are these valid criticisms? I don’t know. If a Swift expert wants to watch me (via screensharing) work on some basic cryptocurrency tracking app I have going for 30-60 minutes to answer my questions and help me learn Swift (I would pay $$$!), I would love that. Swift will make more sense the more I write it, I know that, but I’m left wondering if I’ll always have these thoughts. Beautiful Swift is indeed beautiful. I just need to figure out how to get there.

Categories
Programming

Learning Swift – CS193p Spring 2021 Assignment 1

Coming from Learning Swift (the programming language), I have completed Assignment 1 (including extra credit #1, but not #2). Most of the tasks were relatively straight-forward. I did not do any of the reading.

The last post had a fully functional game working as described in lectures 1 & 2. This assignment built from that.

Some brief notes on the required tasks:

  1. Easy. Done on the last post.
  2. Also easy.
  3. Not too hard, just added a new struct called TitleView and plopped it before the ScrollView in the VStack
  4. I tried to figure out a way to have the emojis var populated with the contents of a different emoji list (e.g. vehicleEmojis, as in var emojis = vehicleEmojis), but wasn’t successful. This will probably be covered in lecture 3. I ended up just hardcoding the initial list to be the same values as the vehicleEmoji string array. The buttons themselves were pretty straightforward.
  5. The hardest part about this was figuring out how to use the emoji browser so I didn’t have to close and re-open it for every new emoji. I did vehicles, animals, and fruit.
  6. array.shuffled(), easy
  7. VStack the system images with text
  8. Okay, I suppose I can do that. I picked the fruit emojis before realizing there weren’t specific fruit symbols. In SF 2, there is a leaf, which is close enough. This seems a bit nit-picky.
  9. font(.body)
  10. ok

Extra credit:

  1. set emojiCount to be a random value from 4 (minimum specified in the task) up to yourEmojiListVar.count. easy. do this after shuffling though
  2. this seems like a lot of work for something I don’t really need to do yet

Code

//
//  ContentView.swift
//  Memorize - Stanford CS193p, Spring 2021
//  After assignment 1
//
//  Created by Austin from austinsnerdythings.com on 5/27/21.
//

import SwiftUI

struct ContentView: View {
    var vehicleEmojis = ["🚗","🚌","🚑","🚜","🛴","🚲","🚔","🛺","🚘","🚃","🚄","🚠","🚅","✈️","🚀","🛸","🚁","🛶","🚤","🚢","🛳","🚓","🚛","🛵"]
    var animalEmojis = ["🐒","🦍","🐩","🦊","🐈","🦁","🦄","🐂","🐖","🐑","🐪","🦒"]
    var fruitEmojis = ["🍎","🍐","🍊","🍋","🍌","🍉","🍇","🍓","🍒","🍑","🍍","🥥"]
    
    @State var emojis = ["🚗","🚌","🚑","🚜","🛴","🚲","🚔","🛺","🚘","🚃","🚄","🚠","🚅","✈️","🚀","🛸","🚁","🛶","🚤","🚢","🛳","🚓","🚛","🛵"]
    @State var emojiCount: Int = 8

    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            TitleView()
            ScrollView {
                LazyVGrid(columns: [GridItem(.adaptive(minimum: 80))]){
                    ForEach(emojis[0..<emojiCount], id: \.self) { emoji in
                        CardView(content: emoji)
                            .aspectRatio(2/3, contentMode: .fit)
                    }
                }
            }
            .foregroundColor(.red)
            Spacer()
            HStack {
                vehicleTheme
                Spacer()
                animalTheme
                Spacer()
                fruitTheme
            }
            .font(.largeTitle)
            .padding(.horizontal)
        }
        .padding()

    }
    
    var remove: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount > 1 {
                emojiCount -= 1
            }
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "minus.circle")
        }
    }
    
    var add: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount < vehicleEmojis.count {
                emojiCount += 1
            }
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "plus.circle")
        }
    }
    
    var vehicleTheme: some View {
        Button(action: {
            emojis = vehicleEmojis.shuffled()
            emojiCount = Int.random(in: 4..<vehicleEmojis.count)
        }, label: {
            VStack{
                Image(systemName: "car").font(.largeTitle)
                Text("Vehicles").font(.body)
            }
        })
    }
    var animalTheme: some View {
        Button(action: {
            emojis = animalEmojis.shuffled()
            emojiCount = Int.random(in: 4..<animalEmojis.count)
        }, label: {
            VStack{
                Image(systemName: "hare").font(.largeTitle)
                Text("Animals").font(.body)
            }
        })
    }
    var fruitTheme: some View {
        Button(action: {
            emojis = fruitEmojis.shuffled()
            emojiCount = Int.random(in: 4..<fruitEmojis.count)
        }, label: {
            VStack{
                Image(systemName: "leaf").font(.largeTitle)
                Text("Fruits").font(.body)
            }
        })
    }
}

struct CardView: View {
    var content: String
    @State var isFaceUp: Bool = true
    
    var body: some View {
        ZStack {
            let shape = RoundedRectangle(cornerRadius: 20)
            if isFaceUp {
                shape.fill().foregroundColor(.white)
                shape.strokeBorder(lineWidth: 3)
                Text(content).font(.largeTitle)
            } else {
                shape.fill()
            }
        }
        .onTapGesture {
            if isFaceUp == true {
                isFaceUp = false
            } else {
                isFaceUp = true
            }
        }
    }
}

struct TitleView: View {
    var body: some View {
        HStack {
            Spacer()
            Text("Memorize!").font(.largeTitle)
            Spacer()
        }
    }
}

struct ContentView_Previews: PreviewProvider {
    static var previews: some View {
        ContentView()
            .preferredColorScheme(.light)
        ContentView()
            .preferredColorScheme(.dark)
    }
}

Screenshots

Next up – lecture 3

Link to post about lecture 3 here.

Categories
Programming

Learning Swift (the programming language)

The next big thing

I’ve been trying to come up with “the next big thing” in terms of apps for quite some time. I may finally have an idea worth coding. To do so requires that I actually know how to code it (duh). For smartphones, I started with Android like any self-respecting nerd would. But after some time, I realized I loved the Apple design, features, and overall “feel” and all the Android hacks and ads and reliance on Google made me want to switch. My first iPhone was the iPhone 5S and I was hooked. I now have an iPhone 11. This means I need to learn Swift, which is the newest Apple iOS programming language.

Stanford CS193p

Someone on the Swift sub-Reddit posted a link to some YouTube lecture videos by Paul Hegarty, a Stanford Computer Science professor. He speaks really well. I know how to program reasonably well in a few other languages but Swift never “clicked” for me. He is straightening things out for me so I can finally learn Swift. The lectures are for CS193p Spring 2021 and should be released twice a week, which is a perfect speed for me to pick things up. I’m already caught up through the 2nd lecture, with the code to match.

Documenting “Memorize”

The app we’re developing in the lectures is called “Memorize” and it basically the card flipping/matching game that many of us played in childhood. I plan to document my version here on austinsnerdythings.com. I was thinking of turning this into a game for Poppy at some point.

Progress after Lecture 2

After lecture 2, I have an app that generates “cards” on demand (using vehicle emojis), puts them in a decent layout, and you can add/subtract cards as desired. Learning Swift via this method will be super nice.

Without further ado (I realized this is becoming like recipe blogs, where there is an unnecessarily long intro before the content), here is the code after the end of lecture 2 (including the 24 vehicles snippet), but before any of the assignment stuff:

//
//  ContentView.swift
//  Memorize
//
//  Created by Austin from austinsnerdythings.com on 5/25/21.
//
import SwiftUI
struct ContentView: View {
    var emojis = ["🚗","🚌","🚑","🚜","🛴","🚲","🚔","🛺","🚘","🚃","🚄","🚠","🚅","✈️","🚀","🛸","🚁","🛶","🚤","🚢","🛳","🚓","🚛","🛵"]
    @State var emojiCount: Int = 4
    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            ScrollView {
                LazyVGrid(columns: [GridItem(.adaptive(minimum: 80))]){
                    ForEach(emojis[0..<emojiCount], id: \.self) { emoji in
                        CardView(content: emoji)
                            .aspectRatio(2/3, contentMode: .fit)
                    }
                }
            }
            .foregroundColor(.red)
            Spacer()
            HStack {
                add
                Spacer()
                remove
            }
            .font(.largeTitle)
            .padding(.horizontal)
        }
        .padding()
    }
    
    var remove: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount > 1 {
                emojiCount -= 1
            }
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "minus.circle")
        }
    }
    
    var add: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount < emojis.count {
                emojiCount += 1
            }
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "plus.circle")
        }
    }
}
struct CardView: View {
    var content: String
    @State var isFaceUp: Bool = true
    
    var body: some View {
        ZStack {
            let shape = RoundedRectangle(cornerRadius: 20)
            if isFaceUp {
                shape.fill().foregroundColor(.white)
                shape.strokeBorder(lineWidth: 3)
                Text(content).font(.largeTitle)
            } else {
                shape.fill()
            }
        }
        .onTapGesture {
            if isFaceUp == true {
                isFaceUp = false
            } else {
                isFaceUp = true
            }
        }
    }
}
struct ContentView_Previews: PreviewProvider {
    static var previews: some View {
        ContentView()
            .preferredColorScheme(.light)
        ContentView()
            .preferredColorScheme(.dark)
    }
}

Screenshots

XCode preview of light and dark themes
Preview in the iPhone 11 simulator

What’s next

There is an assignment after lecture 2. I need to do that next. I wonder if Professor Hegarty will grade it for me?

Update 5/27/2021 – I have completed assignment 1 – post here: Learning Swift – CS193p Spring 2021 Assignment 1.

A Brief Side Note – Hackintosh

I am doing all this coding from a Hackintosh. I converted a Dell Latitude E7450 to run macOS, which was not easy. It is currently running macOS 10.15.7 (Catalina). Apple computer hardware is outrageously expensive for what it is (the “Apple Tax”). When I decide to publish my first app, I do intend on getting an actual Mac to comply with the rules. Pics or it didn’t happen:

Dell Latitude E7450 running macOS Catalina 10.15.7