Learning Swift (the programming language)

The next big thing

I’ve been trying to come up with “the next big thing” in terms of apps for quite some time. I may finally have an idea worth coding. To do so requires that I actually know how to code it (duh). For smartphones, I started with Android like any self-respecting nerd would. But after some time, I realized I loved the Apple design, features, and overall “feel” and all the Android hacks and ads and reliance on Google made me want to switch. My first iPhone was the iPhone 5S and I was hooked. I now have an iPhone 11. This means I need to learn Swift, which is the newest Apple iOS programming language.

Stanford CS193p

Someone on the Swift sub-Reddit posted a link to some YouTube lecture videos by Paul Hegarty, a Stanford Computer Science professor. He speaks really well. I know how to program reasonably well in a few other languages but Swift never “clicked” for me. He is straightening things out for me so I can finally learn Swift. The lectures are for CS193p Spring 2021 and should be released twice a week, which is a perfect speed for me to pick things up. I’m already caught up through the 2nd lecture, with the code to match.

Documenting “Memorize”

The app we’re developing in the lectures is called “Memorize” and it basically the card flipping/matching game that many of us played in childhood. I plan to document my version here on I was thinking of turning this into a game for Poppy at some point.

Progress after Lecture 2

After lecture 2, I have an app that generates “cards” on demand (using vehicle emojis), puts them in a decent layout, and you can add/subtract cards as desired. Learning Swift via this method will be super nice.

Without further ado (I realized this is becoming like recipe blogs, where there is an unnecessarily long intro before the content), here is the code after the end of lecture 2 (including the 24 vehicles snippet), but before any of the assignment stuff:

//  ContentView.swift
//  Memorize
//  Created by Austin from on 5/25/21.
import SwiftUI
struct ContentView: View {
    var emojis = ["?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","✈️","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?","?"]
    @State var emojiCount: Int = 4
    var body: some View {
        VStack {
            ScrollView {
                LazyVGrid(columns: [GridItem(.adaptive(minimum: 80))]){
                    ForEach(emojis[0..<emojiCount], id: \.self) { emoji in
                        CardView(content: emoji)
                            .aspectRatio(2/3, contentMode: .fit)
            HStack {
    var remove: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount > 1 {
                emojiCount -= 1
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "")
    var add: some View {
        Button {
            if emojiCount < emojis.count {
                emojiCount += 1
        } label: {
            Image(systemName: "")
struct CardView: View {
    var content: String
    @State var isFaceUp: Bool = true
    var body: some View {
        ZStack {
            let shape = RoundedRectangle(cornerRadius: 20)
            if isFaceUp {
                shape.strokeBorder(lineWidth: 3)
            } else {
        .onTapGesture {
            if isFaceUp == true {
                isFaceUp = false
            } else {
                isFaceUp = true
struct ContentView_Previews: PreviewProvider {
    static var previews: some View {


XCode preview of light and dark themes
Preview in the iPhone 11 simulator

What’s next

There is an assignment after lecture 2. I need to do that next. I wonder if Professor Hegarty will grade it for me?

Update 5/27/2021 – I have completed assignment 1 – post here: Learning Swift – CS193p Spring 2021 Assignment 1.

A Brief Side Note – Hackintosh

I am doing all this coding from a Hackintosh. I converted a Dell Latitude E7450 to run macOS, which was not easy. It is currently running macOS 10.15.7 (Catalina). Apple computer hardware is outrageously expensive for what it is (the “Apple Tax”). When I decide to publish my first app, I do intend on getting an actual Mac to comply with the rules. Pics or it didn’t happen:

Dell Latitude E7450 running macOS Catalina 10.15.7
Home Assistant Weather

Viewing Ambient Weather WS-2902C data in Home Assistant


If you are coming from the Handling data from Ambient Weather WS-2902C API to MQTT post, you are ready to proceed! If not, you’ll need to follow the steps in that post to get your Ambient Weather WS-2902C data into MQTT.

In short, we set up a Python script that listens on port 80 for data coming from the Ambient Weather base station. It then takes the data and publishes it to various MQTT topics. We can subscribe to those topics to receive new data as soon as it arrives.

Available Data

I’ll re-post the list of available data/topics from my last post:

weather/ws-2902c/PASSKEYaa:bb:cc:dd:ee:ffMAC address
weather/ws-2902c/tempinf70.7temp at the base station
weather/ws-2902c/humidityin36humidity at the base station
weather/ws-2902c/baromrelin29.675adjusted barometric pressure (in Hg)
weather/ws-2902c/baromabsin24.531absolute barometric pressure (in Hg)
weather/ws-2902c/tempf66.2temp at the weather station
weather/ws-2902c/battout1battery status at the weather station?
weather/ws-2902c/humidity26humidity at the weather station
weather/ws-2902c/winddir207wind direction in degrees azimuth
weather/ws-2902c/windspeedmph0.2wind speed
weather/ws-2902c/windgustmph1.1wind gust (shows peaks between updates)
weather/ws-2902c/maxdailygust3.4max daily wind gust
weather/ws-2902c/hourlyrainin0hourly rain fall
weather/ws-2902c/eventrainin0event rain fall (resets after 24 hours of no rain)
weather/ws-2902c/dailyrainin0daily rain fall
weather/ws-2902c/weeklyrainin0weekly rain fall
weather/ws-2902c/monthlyrainin0monthly rain fall
weather/ws-2902c/totalrainin0total rain fall since power on?
weather/ws-2902c/solarradiation697.92solar radiation in watts per square meter
weather/ws-2902c/uv6UV intensity index
table showing available data topics from our Ambient Weather WS-2902C weather station

This is a lot of data. How much/little you want to use is up to you! I believe I added every topic to my Home Assistant so they’d would be available if I ever wanted to use them.

Adding the MQTT topics to Home Assistant

If you don’t have the MQTT line in your base configuration, make sure you add it. I also am using secrets here so it goes and grabs the broker IP address from my secrets file.

For my configuration.yaml file, showing the relevant lines (MQTT sensors and the sensor file)

[email protected]:~/.homeassistant$ cat configuration.yaml

  broker: !secret mqtt_broker

sensor: !include sensor.yaml

For the secrets.yaml file:

[email protected]:~/.homeassistant$ cat secrets.yaml

The way the secrets file works means it looks like this in configuration.yaml:


If you haven’t worked with .yaml in Home Assistant before, it is very picky about spacing. Ensure the spacing is correct (usually 2 spaces per indentation).

With the MQTT line added, we can turn to the sensors file (sensors.yaml). This is where the magic happens! I’ve only added a subset of the topics:

[email protected]:~/.homeassistant$ cat sensor.yaml
[snip non-ambient weather sensors]
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/tempinf"
  name: "real kitchen temp"
  unit_of_measurement: "F"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/tempf"
  name: "real outside temp"
  unit_of_measurement: "F"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/humidityin"
  name: "real kitchen hum"
  unit_of_measurement: "%"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/humidity"
  name: "real outside hum"
  unit_of_measurement: "%"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/solarradiation"
  name: "solar radiation"
  unit_of_measurement: "W/m2"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/dailyrainin"
  name: "daily rain"
  unit_of_measurement: "in"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/windspeedmph"
  name: "wind speed"
  unit_of_measurement: "mph"
- platform: mqtt
  state_topic: "weather/ws-2902c/windgustmph"
  name: "wind gust"
  unit_of_measurement: "mph"

Restarting Home Assistant

With those lines added to the sensor.yaml file, restart Home Assistant. I love Home Assistant but needing to restart it for basically any configuration change is a huge pain.

sudo systemctl restart [email protected]

Adding the new Ambient Weather WS-2902C sensors to your Home Assistant screens

With the new sensors activated, you can add them to any of your Home Assistant pages!

First click the edit button then Add Card:

home assistant screenshot to add card

Next up we need to select what kind of card we want to add. For most of these, they’re time series, so History Graph will be the best choice. I do not know why Home Assistant is recommending the sun position in this screenshot.

select History Graph

Now that the History Graph is selected, we can pick any of the new sensors we added in the entity drop down. In this screenshot we see most of what I added. The others are sorted elsewhere (there are 100+ entities available in my entities drop down).

New sensors available to add so we can view data from the WS-2902C
60 means it will refresh every minute (60 seconds)

With sensor.real_outside_temp selected, I added 60 for the refresh interval, which means the graph will refresh itself every 60 seconds.

Now the graph is added to the page! You can repeat with all the other sensors you want to view. In the below screenshot, we have successfully added the outside temperature from the Ambient Weather WS-2902C to Home Assistant.

My full weather tab

I’ve added a number of sensors from my Ambient Weather WS-2902C to my Home Assistant. Below you can see I have solar radiation, daily rain, real outside humidity, real outside temp (I have another sensor labeled “outdoor temp” that is a floating sensor that is no longer outdoors), and the wind data. I also have the badges up top with just the current numeric value. You can add more or less, it’s totally up to you!


With this series, we have connected the Ambient Weather WS-2902C to our own Linux container to read the data, publish it to MQTT, and then view it in Home Assistant. I hope you’ve found this helpful!

DIY Offgrid Solar

DIY solar with battery backup – up and running!


As of 5/13/2021, I have everything up and running! My DIY solar system with battery backup has produced 5.9 kWh over the last few days. It has been very wet and rainy this spring here in the Front Range of the Rockies and I don’t think we’ve had a full day of sunshine in a couple weeks. In terms of dollars, that 5.9 kWh is worth $0.649. Not much, but knowing I can power the whole house for 6 hours (based on average consumption) is a pretty good feeling. Check out my last post for some detail on how I got the battery bank set up – DIY Solar System with battery backup update.

Battery bank

The battery bank has performed great so far. I am in the process of doing a full discharge test. These cells did each come with a discharge test sheet from Battery Hookup, all showing more than 260Ah (most around 262Ah). Total for the batteries was $1082.

8x260Ah LiFePO4 cell battery bank ready for BMS

Under discharge in the flat part of the curve, the cells are extremely close in voltage. Below is a screenshot of my BMS app (XiaoxiangBMS, which is a super handy app. the fastest I’ve ever spent $6 on the pro version of an app) showing minor discharge current and the cells are within 6 millivolts of each other. It really doesn’t get much better than that.

BMS app (I am not creative enough to name my BMS the U1timatron) showing closely matched cell voltages during discharge


The BMS is a JBD 8s 100A model I got from eBay that comes with bluetooth monitoring ability. It has worked flawlessly so far. I love it when technology just works. Every setting can be configured. It keeps track of every alarm event. And best of all, it was only $68.

JBD 8S 100A Battery monitoring system (BMS) keeping tabs on my LiFePO4 cells
BMS showing a modest discharge. I’ve taken it to 1200W so far.


The all-in-one inverter (inverter, battery charger, MPPT solar controller) is a MPP Solar LV2424 hybrid model. Everything works as expected. I’ve tested all the features successfully. I even got the monitoring software going. The main downside so far to this inverter (and I think this is common) is a relatively high idle power consumption. The BMS reports ~56-60W draw with the inverter on and nothing plugged in. The “idle” power draw decreases as a proportion of the total load on the inverter but it never drops to 0. For example, at 0 load, the inverter draws 60W. At 120W load (based on a questionable Kill-A-Watt), the inverter is drawing 160W, meaning the “idle” power dropped to 40W. This inverter was $665.

Inverter mounted above the battery bank. The solar breaker is to the left.

Solar panels

My $100 each solar panels from Craigslist have been hooked up on and off over the last few days. I haven’t seen more than 480W from the 2 of them combined but they are laying completely flat (they should be tilted towards the sun for maximum power). Overall, happy for the price. I need to get them mounted on the roof.

The main testing location on the south side of our house. They’re basically flat, maybe tilted a degree or two to the south. I haven’t seen more than 480W from them (rated for 2×310=620W) yet but they were cheap so I’m not too disappointed.
Inverter showing the panels putting out 26W on a very cloudy day recently. It has apparently decided that 73V was optimal for whatever conditions were present.

What’s next

My DIY solar system with battery backup is commissioned! Things are functional. Things aren’t located optimally. I need to get the solar panels mounted on the roof and do some tidying around the batteries/inverter. I plan on mounting some drywall above the battery cells to protect from whatever and covering up all the battery terminals. The rear of the cells are covered. The mains are covered. Some of the intermediate terminals are not.

I’m already looking on Craigslist for more solar panels, but I need to 100% finish this project before adding on to it according to my lovely wife (I am sure some of you know exactly what I’m talking about!). With that, I’ll be signing off for the night. The baby is having a very hard time falling asleep tonight. Until next time!

Blog Admin

Fixing a NGINX WordPress HTTP 302 redirect loop

Causes of a HTTP 302 redirect loop

HTTP code 302 redirect loops can be caused by a number of things. Most of them tend to be caused by a misconfigured forward or reverse proxy (Apache, NGINX, HAProxy, etc.). In my case, I am in the process of migrating my WordPress blog from a single tier (NGINX) stack to a 3-tier application stack. This 3-tier stack consists of HAProxy in the front, Varnish in the middle, and NGINX in the back. A simple header setting missing from my NGINX config caused me to spend about an hour figuring out what was causing my HTTP 302 redirect loop.

I created a video version of how to fix a HTTP 302 redirect loop if you’d like to view that instead of reading on –

Symptoms of a HTTP 302 redirect loop

Upon the first visit to my dev site immediately after enabling SSL in the HAProxy config, I was presented with a Firefox error stating “The page isn’t redirecting properly – An error occurred during a connection to *this problem can sometimes be caused by disabling or refusing to accept cookies.”. A screenshot of the error (and associated network requests) is presented below. Firefox apparently retried the request 20 times after the initial redirect.

screenshot showing firefox error code and 302 redirect network requests
screenshot of HTTP 302 code with associated redirect loop

What’s really going on here

The 3 tiers I’ve selected for my stack each play a distinct role in serving you this webpage. The 3 tiers are:

  • HAProxy – HAProxy is the first application to see any request to It handles SSL (the s in https) and that’s about it. In the future, I can use it to make my site highly available (the HA in HAProxy) and fully redundant but that’s a definitely overkill for now. After dealing with the SSL, it hands off the regular http request to Varnish. HAProxy is fast.
  • Varnish – is a caching application. That’s all it does. It doesn’t do SSL, which is why we need to stick HAProxy in front. If a page or asset (.js, .css, etc.) hasn’t been accessed recently, Varnish sends the http request to the webserver and stores the result and forwards it back to the original requester (via HAProxy). If a page or asset has been accessed recently, it is stored in memory and is flipped back to HAProxy without even touching the webserver. Varnish is fast.
  • NGINX – is a event-driven webserver. It takes the http request and fulfills it according to the configuration. For any .php file (basically anything in WordPress), this means sending it to PHP-FPM so the Wordprss code can be executed and a result produced to hand back to NGINX and sent up the tiers.

The request is technically http (not SSL) from exiting HAProxy, through Varnish, and into NGINX. WordPress has at least two features that attempt to send http requests to the equivalent https request. WordPress became unhappy that it was receiving a http request from Varnish (via NGINX) and it turned around and said “don’t use, use”! Varnish and NGINX don’t want https requests. The competing requests turned into the redirect loop.

How to fix the HTTP 302 redirect loop

The solution is pretty easy: you just need to add a single line to your NGINX site config file inside the php block:

fastcgi_param HTTPS 1;

This forces the headers to show the request is in fact a HTTPS request. WordPress is perfectly happy with that and doesn’t try any funny business returning 302 codes.

My full NGINX php block (with credit to where I got this from, looks like this:

location ~ \.php$ {
	fastcgi_param HTTPS 1;

	fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
	fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.4-fpm.sock;
	fastcgi_index index.php;
	fastcgi_send_timeout 300s;
	fastcgi_read_timeout 300s;
	include fastcgi_params;
	fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
	fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
	fastcgi_buffers 256 4k;
	fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
	fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
	fastcgi_intercept_errors on;


After making the changes and reloading NGINX, I attempted to log in again and was presented with a normal dashboard view with happy, green HTTP 200 codes!

screenshot showing successful loading of the wp-admin/wordpress dashboard
expected screen after attempting to log in after solving the 302 redirect loop


Huge shout out to Emil Flink and his post WordPress Nginx redirect loop which really got me pointed in the right direction. He broke down exactly what was happening throughout WordPress’ underlying code and presented it in a a very easy to interpret method.

Blog Admin

My Fast WordPress Page Load Speeds – Part 1

How fast is fast enough?

People trust faster loading web sites than slower ones, all else being equal. There are many articles and studies saying so. It’s also better for search engine optimization (SEO). Personally, if a site takes more than 5 seconds to load, I wonder why and open the page source and start looking into it. I knew when I made that I wanted it to have a super fast WordPress page load speed.

Initial goal – less than 1 second for page load speed, and >90 for page speed tests

I decided on a initial target of loading in under a second. How did I achieve this target? It wasn’t scientific. Sites that load in 2 seconds or more are noticeable. For sites that load in under a second – it is hard to tell if the site loads in 0.6 seconds or 0.8. One second just felt like a good goal. I also wanted the 3 major page speed test sites to show a 90% or better.

Results – consistently fast WordPress page load speeds and 90+ on page speed tests

This site consistently loads in under a second. Here is a screenshot from the evening of writing this post showing a load time of 0.619 seconds. The server is located in New York City and I’m loading the page in Denver. That’s 50 milliseconds of ping by itself.

619 millisecond load time on my main PC

I also score 90+ on each of the big 3 page speed test sites – Google Page Speed Insights, GTMatrix, and Pingdom.

Here is the GTMatrix page speed result showing a strong 99% for performance. Note that this test was conducted from Vancouver, which is nearly 3000 miles away. That’s a lot of distance for the packets to travel.

99% for performance. Can’t argue with that

For Google Page Speed Insight, I score a perfect 100 for desktop load speed. Mobile is 90, not sure why they’re so different. I don’t think I need to worry about this anytime soon.

The elusive 100 for Google PageSpeed Insights
PageSpeed reporting 90 for mobile version? Must be some sort of artificial limit on performance or something.

For Pingdom, it is reporting I need to make less HTTP calls. I experimented with a couple different plugins and I think I need to go back to a different one for merging the site’s assets to reduce calls.

I’ve never seen E for a grade. Guessing it basically means F. I should improve on this.

It wasn’t particularly difficult to achieve the 90+ page speed scores and fast WordPress page load speeds. Read on to find out how I did this. stack

The stack driving this site is pretty standard. I use the following (ascending layer order)

  • Ramnode premium VPS ($12/month). I had a standard VPS but realized a faster CPU would provide better time to first byte and be just faster in general. It also has NVMe drives instead of SATA SSD, which further reduces latency.
  • Dual stack networking – IPv6 enabled as well as IPv4
  • MariaDB (MySQL drop in replacement) – zero tuning
  • PHP-FPM – interprets all dynamic requests, which is basically all the requests. zero tuning
  • NGINX webserver – this is the new hotness for webservers. It is event driven and runs fast. zero tuning
  • GZIP compression – much of the content can be compressed while being transferred which means faster load times
  • HTTP/2 – the newest generation of HTTP transfer protocol. not sure what’s faster about it than HTTP/1.1 but it is
  • Fast velocity minify plugin – combines javascript and CSS files into fewer entities which means faster load time
  • No extra plugins – don’t load up on plugins. some are really bad and will drastically increase page load times.
  • Lazy load pictures – no need to have pictures load until users get to them
  • Don’t embed videos – they just take forever to load up, which is a problem for page load speeds

Overall, this is a pretty standard stack. I haven’t done any manual tuning to any of the services/processes serving up my site. Starting with a fast VPS definitely helps get a fast WordPress page load speed. The rest just seemed logical to me. That doesn’t mean there isn’t room for improvement.

What’s next for an even faster WordPress page load speed

I have a development environment mocked up on my Proxmox virtual machine host that mimics almost exactly the production site (i.e. what served you this page). The page load speeds were roughly the same locally vs from NYC so it is a good comparison. I installed Varnish for caching and HAProxy for SSL termination (Varnish doesn’t do SSL/https). My homepage loaded consistently in a quarter of a second. The fastest I saw was 0.219 seconds. Sure Varnish and HAProxy are two more full-blown services to install and manage but is it worth it? I think it is. I’ll be migrating my production stack over to this 3 tier stack soon.

Further, I can add my content to a content delivery network (CDN), like Cloudflare, and have it cached there too for fast access anywhere they have a datacenter (they have like 200 datacenters across the planet). I did use Cloudflare CDN for a bit and didn’t like not seeing my statistics update in real-time so I backed off.

I am realizing this may be a good business opportunity – consistently super fast WordPress sites. Let me know if you’d be interested.

Check back for part 2 where I document the journey to the 3 tier stack.